It would be interesting to have Scott Levi’s paper on this matter.
This is a topic something I had long wanted to do something about
since my school days in India. Our historian K.S.Lal definitely
carried out some worthy preliminary investigations in this direction
best read along with his great analysis of the devastating Khilji
regime in India. Levi is definitely a reputable Central Asian scholar
and not very biased towards Islam as is typical of many western
scholars. His earlier research on the credit card like system of the
Indian Banias and their extensive trade networks was an important one.
It showed how the itinerant Hindu traders were very critical for the
survival of the Indian economy. An important corollary to this is that
we owe a significant part of the survival of Hinduism to the patronage
of these vaishyas in the medireview. However an important point that
probably did not interest a third party scholar like Levi was the
comparison of the Central Asian trade in during the Islamic era to the
earlier Indian merchants in Cen.As and the far East. The earlier
Indian traders established their culture and religion very strongly
where ever they went. They were subsequently followed by Indian
kshatriyas and brAhmaNas that helped to safeguard their trade and
religious interests. Nothing of this sort happened during the Moslem
period. This historical experiment I think suggests how restrictive
the Islamic world was. It simply did not allow any open display of
Hindu culture and squashed any such attempt. This alone should point
out the ground realities of the historical Islamic world. If any one
doubted this there is a modern re-run of this going on with Indians in
the Middle East. Only thing it is not fueled by a productive Indian
economy selling goods in these regions.
Mohammed Nessavi writing the history of the epic struggle of the
Khwarezim Sultan Jalal-ad-din Mangubidri and the Mongol emperor
Chingiz Khan mentions a remarkable fact as he muses over the death of
The Sultan was a man of medium height. His face was that of a turk but
his complexion was black as pitch. This was because his mother was a
pretty kaffir woman procured by Sultan Mohammed Shah from the land of
It sums it up quite clearly… the fate of captive Hindu women…
ironical that an islamic terror as Jalal-ad-din whose brutality on the
Georgian campaign put his Mongol pursuers to shame.
From Rashid ad din records(A jewish physician who had been converted
to islam at sword point).
The Grand Imam of the Hashishins (Assassins) Alai-ad-din was a
homosexual, Hashish addict and a zoophiliac. His son Rokn ud din and
other Ismailians thought it best for the Hashishins to eliminate him
as he slept by his sheep in a vinous stupor. They chose a Kaffir from
Hind to do the assissnation so that suspicions would not be aroused.
After a fierce fight the kaffir cut off the head of Rokn ud din at
mid-night and dropped wounded beside him… the kaffir was then
Kaffirs were put to good use in the Islamic world but you hear little
of it in the sanitized volumes of history. I have pasted two samples
from my notes that are in connection with prominent central Asian
As an aside the kaffir alleles infused into central Asia are quite
significant, so another problem to test issues of the Aryan invasion
through DNA sequence polymorphisms.